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/r/Forex Trading Community

Welcome FXGears' Forex Trading Community! Here you can converse about trading ideas, strategies, trading psychology, and nearly everything in between! ---- We also have one of the largest forex chatrooms online! ---- /Forex is the official subreddit of FXGears.com, a trading forum run by professional traders. FXGears.com hosts and moderates our chatroom, and has developed such tools as the chart bot you'll find available in chat.
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r/StockMarket - Reddit's front page of the stock market, financial news

Stock market news, Trading, investing, long term, short term traders, daytrading, technical analysis, fundamental analysis and more. We cover it all at stockmarket.
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Binary.com - Trusted by traders since 2000

The Binary.com service is owned and operated by the Binary Group, which includes a number of trading companies in multiple jurisdictions. Several of these companies are licensed and regulated, Binary.com has been providing financial trading to a worldwide audience of over 1 Million clients from 130+ countries since 1999. Please trade responsibly. For more information please visit www.begambleaware.org. All clients must be 18+.
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Is it worth paying for Forex trading courses?

I’ve been trading stocks here and there by using tips that I’ve learned off of countless hours of internet research and YouTube videos. My friend got interested in Forex trading because his friend said he made $1k in a day. I don’t believe in buying courses and I’ve told him that but he’s getting convinced on this because his friend bought a $300 course and uses some Forex program and ended up making that $1k a day. We are all 20 so $1k makes our mouths water, but my friend has absolutely no experience in any sort of trading. I know that most trading gurus make a lot, if not most, of their income from selling information so I don’t buy the idea that paying for a course will somehow have an impact on your trading abilities. I decided to join this Forex subreddit to see what any of your thoughts are. I’m pretty new to Forex as well so I’ll be sticking around just to learn.
tldr; my friend wants to buy a course to learn Forex but I don’t think it’s a good idea because all the info is free on the internet. Thoughts?
submitted by dinoslam to Forex [link] [comments]

Trading video tube with Forex & Binary Options videos online

submitted by MyTradeVideo to u/MyTradeVideo [link] [comments]

Price Action Trading- The Greatest System.

When I first started trading, I used to add all indicators on my chart. MACD, RSI, super trend, ATR, ichimoku cloud, Bollinger Bands, everything!
My chart was pretty messy. I understood nothing and my analysis was pretty much just a gamble.
Nothing worked.
DISCLOSURE- I've written this article on another sub reddit, if you've already read it, you make skip this one and come back tomorrow.
Then I learned price action trading. And things started to change. It seemed difficult and unreliable at first.
There's a saying in my country. "Bhav Bhagwan Che" it means "Price Is GOD".
That holds true in the market.
Amos Every indicator you see is based on price. RSI uses open/close price and so does moving average. MACD uses price.
Price is what matters the most.
Everything depends on the price, and then the indicators send a signal.
Price Action trading is trading based on Candlestick patterns and support and resistance. You don't use any indicators (SMA sometimes), use plot trend lines and support and resistance zones, maybe Fibs or Pivot points.
It is not 100% successful, but the win rate is quite high if you know how to analyse it correctly.
How To Learn Price Action Trading?
YouTube channels- 1. Trading with Rayner Teo. 2. Adam Khoo. 3. The Chart Guys. 4. The Trading Channel (and some other channels including regional ones).
Books- 1. Technical Analysis Explained. 2. The trader's book of volume. 3. Trading price action trends. 4. Trading price action reversals. 5. Trading price actions ranges. 6. Naked forex. 7. Technical analysis of the financial markets.
I think this is enough information to help you get started.
Price Action trading includes a few parts.
  1. Candlestick patterns You'll have to be able to spot a bullish engulfing or a bearish engulfing pattern. Or a doji or a morning star.
  2. Chart Patterns. The flag, wedge, channels or triangles. These are often quite helpful in chart analysis without using indicators.
  3. Support or Resistance. I've seen people draw 15 lines of support and resistance, this just makes your chart messy and you don't know where the price will take a support.
You can also you the demand and supply zone concept if you're more comfortable with that.
  1. Volume. There's a quote "Boule precedes price". Volume analysis is a bit hard, but it's totally worth learning. Divergence is also a great concept.
  2. Multiple time frames. To confirm a trend or find the long term support or resistance, you can use a higher time frame. Plus, it is more reliable and divergence is way stronger on it.
You can conclude everything to make a powerful system. Like if there's a divergence (price up volume down) and there's a major resistance on some upper level and a double top is formed,
That's a very reliable strategy to go short. Combinations of various systems work very good imo.
Does this mean that indicators are useless?
No, I use moving averages and RSI quite frequently. Using price action and confirming it through indicators gives me a higher win rate.
"Bhav Bhagwan Che".
-Vikrant C.
submitted by Vikrantc2003 to Daytrading [link] [comments]

Have any of you radically changed your political views since childhood?

I grew up in a typical conservative middle-class household in the 90s. Like most conservative families, I grew up hearing about how horrible Sheikh Mujib became after 71, and how people were so relieved after he was murdered in 1975. This is something I heard from everyone, relatives, friends, etc. I, too, used to hate Sheikh Mujib. I thought he was a dictator, pro-India, anti-Islam, traitor, just wanted to be Pakistan's PM, etc.
Of course, I was a teenager in the 2001-2006 period when the BNP-Jamat government rammed the entire country into the ground. There were hartals and oborodhs all the time, electricity used to go off every other hour, terrorist would blast a bomb every other week while the government would term it all as a "conspiracy", there was no development and we would stagger from one crisis to another. Mullahs would carry out misils all the time calling for Shariah law, and attacking Ahmadiyya houses. Khaleda Zia had zero control over the country. She just didn't have any leadership qualities. I felt that I wanted to leave this shithole as soon as I got the first opportunity.
The BNP regime was interrupted by the caretaker government. Full of "highly educated" bureaucrats, I naturally supported them. But their "Minus 2" plan went nowhere, and they weren't being able to handle the country either. Fakhruddin Ahmed and Moinuddin Ahmed just didn't' have any leadership qualities either. Facing an unfavourable situation, they at least had the decency to organize elections and arrange a respectable exit for themselves.
Then we the Awami League get power in 2008. I still hated them back then. Their first term, 2009-2013 was full of turmoil, with the "Shahbag movement" and the "ICT Tribunal" and the hanging of the senior Jamat leaders. But the country gradually started getting into shape. If you look at the economic indicators we started taking off in 2010. By 2014 political stability was re-established. This was all possible due to Sheikh Hasina's leadership qualities, which others lack. The Awami League's electricity reforms paid off, and loadshedding is largely over in Dhaka. Awami League drastically reduced prices of broadband internet, and we got access to bufferless YouTube for the first time. BNP was jumping up and down screaming that government was looting crores of taka under the name of quick rental power plants. But our forex reserves zoomed from 10 billion to 30 billion. New roads were being built everywhere and Bangladesh's Debt-to-GDP ratio remains one of the lowest in South Asia, and in the world.
So I was really forced to re-evaluate my hatred of Awami League, Sheik Hasina and Sheikh Mujib. When I looked back at the life of Sheikh Mujib, I found that he dedicated his life to the people of East Bengal. He was a part of the Muslim League to get independence for us, and after witnessing the bloody religious riots changed his worldview to secular democratic socialism. That's something very admirable! That's not anti-Islam at all! And then he joined forces with India to free East Pakistan. That's not treason, his loyalty was to the people of East Pakistan. He single-handedly united 60 million very backward and uneducated people and led them to independence. After that, he presided over the creation of a Constitution that was secular, in a overwhelmingly rural, uneducated Muslim country. He could easily have given in to Saudi Arabia in return for oil, like so many Muslim countries, but did not compromise. He could have chosen to recognize Israel, and have gotten instant recognition and support from the West, but stayed firm to his principles of loyalty to the Palestinian people. All of his actions point towards the qualities of a great leader. Sheikh Mujib did not allow the Indians to stay in Bangladesh and ensured their withdrawal.
Just have a look at countries around the world today. Look at Syria, where they have a bastard dictator who murders his own people, and an opposition full of traitors and terrorists. Look at Libya, where the people have no leadership. Look at India, where they are under the thrall of a fascist religious dictator Modi. Sudan is only establishing secularism in their constitution in 2020, while Bangladesh did it 50 years ago!!! Look at Iran, where people are all trying to escape their religious government. Look at Pakistan with their blasphemy laws and their mullahs trying to oppose any law against child marriage! We bypassed all of this thanks to Sheikh Mujib and his foresight!!!
The closest leader who resembles Sheikh Mujib would be Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. While Ataturk was objectively greater than Sheikh Mujib, since he was an accomplished military leader who led the actual Turkish War of Independence himself, Ataturk also modernized a backward, rural, uneducated nation overnight into a modern, secular and democratic state. Of course, Ataturk has many haters. They also accuse him of being a dictator. But his achievements greatly overshadow any sacrifices that may have been required to achieve the goal of a modern independent Turkey. The same goes for Shiekh Mujib. Whatever are his faults, Rakkhi Bahini, BAKSAL, I am willing to forgive him for his leadership during our independence and his creation of a secular and democratic Bangladesh.
Today we are blessed to have his daughter Sheikh Hasina in power. Lots of you might call her "fascist". That's such a lazy and pathetic position to take. Trust me, if there was any other leader other than SH as PM the government would be just as "fascist" as her government is now. Its so easy to sit back behind a PC and cry "fascist fascist fascist". YOU try organizing a political party in a nation of 165 million people, and then successfully leading that country on the path towards economic development. Without a doubt, if those crying 'fascist fascist' were put into power as PM they would be 100 times more fascistic than Sheikh Hasina is right now.
Without a doubt, human rights abuses occur under her. Abrar was beaten to death by BCL thugs (which was fully supported by the 'humanist' Taslima Nasrin btw). But those BCL thugs are in jail now. Major Sinha Rashed Khan was murdered by OC Liakat and Prodip. Both of them are in jail. If SH was as fascist as people claim, they would be out in the streets, like the Hindu thugs who carried out the Delhi riots in February, or the terrorist Mullahs in Pakistan who forcibly convert and kidnap Christian girls.
So, from what I have seen, Awami League is an organic political party of the people of East Bengal. They have deeper roots in the hearts of the people than any other political movement. And they should be lauded because they have established secularism and inclusive nationalism where there is space for Bangladeshis of all religions and ethnicities in a united Bangladesh. While sometimes they have acted in a fascist manner, it is excusable because there is no other alternative in Bangladesh who can win elections and be more liberal than BAL. Instead of pathetically criticizing them, those who want the best for Bangladesh should work with them in order to reduce the human rights abuses which do still occur. BAL will be remembered in history like the PAP of Singapore, or the UMNO of Malaysia, or the Chinese Communist Party; all of whom were authoritarian, who were accused of being fascist, but ultimately ensured the evolution of their societies from backward uneducated agricultural societies to modern, secular democratic industrial ones.
submitted by bgd_guy to bangladesh [link] [comments]

A message to new Forex Traders

I’m 20 years old, and I’ve traded Forex for around a year now. The trading lifestyle definitely has its ups and downs. I remember first starting out and using Excel to find out my potential profits. I remember thinking to myself, “Wow! If I grow my account 3% a day I’ll be a millionaire in no time!” Seeing the Excel sheets and the compounding growth gave me a motivation that I’ve never experienced in my entire life. I read so many books on trading from Babypips all the way to Advanced Quantitative Trading Techniques. I’ve been very successful so far and have made more money than a 20 year old should have, but for all those thinking that this is an easy road, it’s not.
It saddens me seeing the countless people getting into trading whether it be securities or Forex and losing it all. People that lack basic fundamental knowledge “yoloing” their life savings on options or over leveraging their accounts and blowing it up within days or weeks. This game requires patience and a drive to learn. You’d have better luck going to Vegas than trying to trade if you don’t put in the time and work. At the same time, I think this is something everyone can do. You don’t need to be especially smart to be successful. Having a passion for this is really all this takes. If you can sit down for 8 hours and enjoy reading and learning, you’re in the right place.
Please, I beg of you. Don’t watch a YouTube video and think “I’m gonna be a millionaire,” and throw your life savings at this. The most important advice ever given to me was that you should always be ready to lose everything you put into this. It’s going to cost you time, money, and probably your sanity, but if you can pull it off, you won’t have to endure a life slaving away at some corporate finance firm working 100+ hours a week doing menial tasks for your dickhead boss.
Edit: Super happy that so many people found this helpful!
submitted by Robinverse to Forex [link] [comments]

LA MEJOR ESTRATEGIA SCALPING | DAYTRADING QUE ENCONTRE!

LA MEJOR ESTRATEGIA SCALPING | DAYTRADING QUE ENCONTRE!
Buenas a todos, espero puedan apreciar este post ya que nunca suelo publicar mis métodos de trading o investigaciones sobre análisis fundamental o temas macroeconómicos.
https://preview.redd.it/w96zls5wkoe51.png?width=1364&format=png&auto=webp&s=6f2af34fba6cda1b3161e1843c1562c96942e6ba
Primero que nada hace bastante tiempo que cada día opero el Nasdaq para poder pulir al máximo mi forma de operar, eh probado miles de estrategias o indicadores que aparecen en youtube que te dicen esto y aquello y que hacete millonario con 50 usd en forex...blabla. Luego de haber probado de todo haber que es lo que realmente servía llegué a dar con un par de traders profesionales con mas de 33 años de experiencia en la bolsa de new york, otro con mas de 15 años de experiencia y el ultimo con 10 años, el primero es "Oliver Velez" , el segundo es "Marcello Arrambide" y por ultimo "Borja Tube" mi método esta basado en una combinación de los 3 adaptado a mi operativa, ya que considero que no es real poder aplicar el método de otra persona tal cual a la situación de cada uno.
Oliver Vélez opera en una temporalidad de 2 minutos, con una media móvil simple de 20 y otra de 200, nada mas que eso. El opera acciones americanas y recientemente se metió en criptomonedas ofreciendo comentar cada decisión que toma ya que las opera a largo plazo.
Marcello Arrambide quien tiene la academia DTA opera con ticks en vez de con velas, con otros indicadores y opera futuros. Sus indicadores no son mi estilo de operar y tampoco la grafica de ticks, pero utiliza un indicador en particular que realmente sirve y es el canal de kelther el cual la configuración que ellos usan es para graficas ticks así que cada quien lo tiene que configurar a su gusto envelas japonesas.
Borja Tube quien opera con su socio Lorenzo, operan futuros también y utilizan una media móvil de 15 sino mal recuerdo, a veces el retroceso de fibonacci y el volumen principalmente. De su forma de operar lo que rescato es el uso del volumen aplicado a grandes movimientos que también aplica en el caso de Oliver Velez salvo que difieren en el momento de entrada.
Entonces ¿Cómo opero yo?
Bueno yo utilizo tradingview en su versión gratuita por lo que uso una temporalidad de 3 minutos que me gusta mucho porque no es tan lenta como la de 5 min, o muy rápida como de 2 min. Uso dos medias móviles exponenciales de 20 y 200, utilizo el canal de kelther y el volumen pero en su versión intra bar eso significa que es un volumen que me muestra en Una Vela el porcentaje de venta y de compra, en vez del clásico una vela es si o si roja o verde. Desde que abre el mercado a las 9:30 new york, el tiempo de operar suelen ser 15 min, rara vez llego a los 30 min y si es así es porque estoy en una posición. Normalmente busco 1 sola operación y excepcionalmente 2, luego de dos operaciones esta demostrado que las emociones empiezan a jugar en contra notablemente. Solo entro si veo claro la entrada o veo oportunidad de ganar, si estoy en duda directamente no entro y me quedo esperando a que mejore la situación y si no es así entonces no es día operable. Una de las cosas que mas cuesta darse cuenta es que no es necesario operar todos los días, o hacer 10 operaciones en una mañana. Es increíble el dinero que se ahorran al no operar cuando el mercado no esta bueno.
No quiero hacer el post muy extenso pero para que puedan entender con ejemplos les puedo decir que por ejemplo una prueba de fondeo para que te den 25 mil usd reales implica que pases una prueba en demo durante 1 mes, en la cual no podes operar con exceso de contratos, no podes perder mas de 500 usd por dia y la perdida maxima total es de 1500 usd, el objetivo es lograr en 1 mes una ganancia de 1500 usd constantes (26.500 al final del mes), eso quiere decir que no hayas ganado eso por suerte apostando mucho en 1 dia.
Entonces simulando esas reglas de:
  • capital = 25 mil usd
  • perdida máxima diaria = 500 usd
  • perdida máxima total = 1500 usd,
  • uso de contratos = 10 usd por punto (son 5 contratos micro e mini nasdaq)
Operando desde el día 12 de Junio con un profit buscado por única operación de 200 usd a día de hoy, aplicando mi estrategia los 25.000 usd se transformaron en 27.600 usd. Vuelvo aclarar por las dudas, esto se opera en demo y si se supera los 26.500 te dan a operar una cuenta real de 25 mil usd. Aquí lo que se prueba es el método, tema emociones en real es otro mundo pero primero hay que tener un estrategia que sea ganadora realmente.
Como pueden ver es una estrategia que funciona realmente, hay muchas cosas mas que influyen que se aprenden con la experiencia y demás, si quieren que haga un post sobre mas del tema pídanmelo.
A continuación les dejo las operaciones (-0.75 es la comisión supuesta por operación)
Jul 31 27 600.00 27 599.25 -0.75
Jul 31 27 297.00 27 600.00 +303.00
Jul 31 27 297.75 27 297.00 -0.75
Jul 30 27 298.50 27 297.75 -0.75
Jul 30 27 091.50 27 298.50 +207.00
Jul 30 27 092.25 27 091.50 -0.75
Jul 29 27 093.00 27 092.25 -0.75
Jul 29 26 964.00 27 093.00 +129.00
Jul 29 26 964.75 26 964.00 -0.75
Jul 28 26 965.50 26 964.75 -0.75
Jul 28 27 252.50 26 965.50 -287.00
Jul 28 27 253.25 27 252.50 -0.75
Jul 28 27 254.00 27 253.25 -0.75
Jul 28 27 440.00 27 254.00 -186.00
Jul 28 27 440.75 27 440.00 -0.75
Jul 27 27 441.50 27 440.75 -0.75
Jul 27 27 139.00 27 441.50 +302.50
Jul 27 27 139.75 27 139.00 -0.75
Jul 27 27 140.50 27 139.75 -0.75
Jul 27 27 141.25 27 140.50 -0.75
Jul 27 27 253.75 27 141.25 -112.50
Jul 27 27 254.50 27 253.75 -0.75
Jul 24 27 255.25 27 254.50 -0.75
Jul 24 27 055.25 27 255.25 +200.00
Jul 24 27 056.00 27 055.25 -0.75
Jul 24 27 056.75 27 056.00 -0.75
Jul 24 26 554.75 27 056.75 +502.00
Jul 24 26 555.50 26 554.75 -0.75
Jul 24 26 556.25 26 555.50 -0.75
Jul 24 26 914.25 26 556.25 -358.00
Jul 24 26 915.00 26 914.25 -0.75
Jul 22 26 915.75 26 915.00 -0.75
Jul 22 27 171.75 26 915.75 -256.00
Jul 22 27 172.50 27 171.75 -0.75
Jul 21 27 173.25 27 172.50 -0.75
Jul 21 26 960.25 27 173.25 +213.00
Jul 21 26 961.00 26 960.25 -0.75
Jul 20 26 961.75 26 961.00 -0.75
Jul 20 26 701.75 26 961.75 +260.00
Jul 20 26 702.50 26 701.75 -0.75
Jul 17 26 703.25 26 702.50 -0.75
Jul 17 26 503.25 26 703.25 +200.00
Jul 17 26 504.00 26 503.25 -0.75
Jul 17 26 504.75 26 504.00 -0.75
Jul 17 26 499.75 26 504.75 +5.00
Jul 17 26 500.50 26 499.75 -0.75
Jul 16 26 501.25 26 500.50 -0.75
Jul 16 26 486.25 26 501.25 +15.00
Jul 16 26 487.00 26 486.25 -0.75
Jul 14 26 487.75 26 487.00 -0.75
Jul 14 26 234.75 26 487.75 +253.00
Jul 14 26 235.50 26 234.75 -0.75
Jul 13 26 236.25 26 235.50 -0.75
Jul 13 26 034.25 26 236.25 +202.00
Jul 13 26 035.00 26 034.25 -0.75
Jul 10 26 035.75 26 035.00 -0.75
Jul 10 25 825.75 26 035.75 +210.00
Jul 10 25 826.50 25 825.75 -0.75
Jul 9 25 827.25 25 826.50 -0.75
Jul 9 25 452.25 25 827.25 +375.00
Jul 9 25 453.00 25 452.25 -0.75
Jul 9 25 453.75 25 453.00 -0.75
Jul 9 25 521.75 25 453.75 -68.00
Jul 9 25 522.50 25 521.75 -0.75
Jul 8 25 523.25 25 522.50 -0.75
Jul 8 25 270.25 25 523.25 +253.00
Jul 8 25 271.00 25 270.25 -0.75
Jul 7 25 271.75 25 271.00 -0.75
Jul 7 25 271.75 25 271.75 0.00
Jul 7 25 272.50 25 271.75 -0.75
Jul 2 25 273.25 25 272.50 -0.75
Jul 2 25 059.25 25 273.25 +214.00
Jul 2 25 060.00 25 059.25 -0.75
Jul 1 25 060.75 25 060.00 -0.75
Jul 1 24 839.75 25 060.75 +221.00
Jul 1 24 840.50 24 839.75 -0.75
Jun 29 24 841.25 24 840.50 -0.75
Jun 29 24 838.25 24 841.25 +3.00
Jun 29 24 839.00 24 838.25 -0.75
Jun 17 24 839.75 24 839.00 -0.75
Jun 17 25 177.75 24 839.75 -338.00
Jun 17 25 178.50 25 177.75 -0.75
Jun 16 25 179.25 25 178.50 -0.75
Jun 16 25 202.25 25 179.25 -23.00
Jun 16 25 203.00 25 202.25 -0.75
Jun 15 25 203.75 25 203.00 -0.75
Jun 15 25 199.75 25 203.75 +4.00
Jun 15 25 200.50 25 199.75 -0.75
Jun 12 25 201.25 25 200.50 -0.75
Jun 12 24 999.25 25 201.25 +202.00
Jun 12 25 000.00 24 999.25 -0.75
Si llegaron hasta acá, les agradezco por leer todo y espero que esto pueda ayudar a quienes anden medios perdidos con el trading al igual que yo lo estaba al principio. Comparto esta información con el único fin de ayudar con el conocimiento y experiencia que tengo para que otros no tropiecen tantas veces o puedan acortar su camino a ser traders. Un saludo a todos!
submitted by PandaPaul0 to merval [link] [comments]

Kuvera is a scam

The only way you can make money off Kuvera is off of the referral aspect. You aren’t gonna make any money off it after paying $400 CAD initial fee and a $200 monthly fee. The mentors are just gonna tell you how great Kuvera is but never actually teach you anything about trading. The videos are basically the same shit you find on YouTube or maybe even worse. The “travel benefit” is complete bs because it’s basically deals from kayak and other websites just put on another website. It’s a complete waste of time and money, and trust me theyre gonna act very influential and what not but alll they want us your money and to leave you to the wolves. If you want to learn forex, read books, watch yt videos and take advantage of all the free resources. Even the alerts are meant to make you lose, there are no professionals in the company, just people who entered the team and learned from the scammer himself Rakan Khalifa. Stay away from pyramid schemes such as Kuvera. They portray to make you get rich quick or increase your wealth but in reality they just want you to waste it. Remember nobody but yourself can make you rich, and Kuvera will make it seem as if they can make you rich. These guys have been scamming students across GTA, don’t be one of the students to fall in their trap.
submitted by yaseerrr to yorku [link] [comments]

Forex Trading in Kenya.

Someone posted on here a few days ago asking about forex and forex trading in Kenya, I have gone through the responses and clearly, most people don’t have an idea. It is 3am in the morning and am in a good mood so let me make this post. This will be a comprehensive and lengthy post so grab a pen and paper and sit down. We’ll be here a while.
FIRST OF ALL, who am I..?
I am a forex trader, in Nairobi, Kenya..i have been actively involved in forex since I found out about it in Feb 2016 when I somehow ended up in a wealth creation seminar (lol) in pride inn Westlands, the one close to Mpaka Rd. Luckily for me, it was not one of those AIM global meetings or I’d be on Facebook selling God knows what those guys sell. I did not take it seriously till August of the same year and I have been active ever since.
I don’t teach, mentor or sell a course or signals, I trade my own money. I am also posting from a throwaway account because I don’t want KRA on my ass.
What the fuck is forex and forex trading.
In simple plain English, forex is like the stock market but for currencies. Stock Market = Shares, forex = currencies. If you want more in-depth explanation, google is your friend.
These currencies are pegged on specific countries, united states- dollar, UK- pound, euro zone- euro, Switzerland- Swiss fran